GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Adapted Physical Education: An individual program of developmental activities, games, sports, and rhythms suited to the interests, capacities, and limitations of students with disabilities who may not safely or successfully engage in unrestricted participation in the vigorous activities of the general physical education program.
Advocate: Anyone who supports the cause of a person with disabilities or group of people with disabilities, especially in legal or administrative proceedings or public forums.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Diagnostic category of the American Psychiatric Association for a condition in which a child exhibits developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.
Auditory Processing: The ability to understand and use information that is heard, both words as well as other non-verbal sounds.
Autistic: A term applied to children who exhibit the characteristics of autism, a severe disorder characterized by the inability to communicate through meaningful speech and the inability to develop relationships with other persons due to withdrawal.
Behavior Disorder: A disability characterized by behavior that differs markedly and chronically from current social or cultural norms and adversely affects educational performance.
Behavior Intervention Plan: Effective May 20, 1993, any student with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) who exhibits a serious behavior problem that significantly interferes with the implementation of the goals and objectives on the student’s IEP must have a behavioral intervention plan (BIP) developed by an IEP team with a behavioral intervention case manager. The behavioral intervention plan must now become a part of the IEP under Sections 3001 and 3052 in Title 5, California Code of Regulations. These sections mandate that attempts to change serious and pervasive behavior problems result in lasting positive changes; provide greater access to community, social and public events; that the behavioral interventions do not cause pain or trauma, and that the interventions respect the dignity and privacy of the individual. In the event of a behavioral emergency, procedures are now defined which govern the range of responses to that emergency.
Behavior Modification: The systematic application of procedures derived from the principles of behavior (e.g., reinforcement) in order to achieve desired changes in behavior.
Behavioral Objectives: A precise measurable statement of what the pupil is expected to achieve, including the conditions under which the pupil will achieve and the criteria for measuring the achievement.
Behavioral Support Plan: In IDEA, Behavioral Support Plans (BSPs) are mandated for any child with a disability whose behavior impedes the learning of self or others. It is designed to be an earlier, positive intervention than a Behavior Intervention Plan in California Education Code.
Case Management: A service that assists student/clients to obtain and coordinate community resources such as income assistance, education, housing, medical care, treatment, vocational preparation, and recreation.
Cerebral Palsy: Motor impairment caused by brain damage, which is usually inflicted during the prenatal period or during the birth process. Can involve a wide variety of symptoms and range from mild to severe. It is neither curable, nor progressive.
Communicatively Disabled (CD): Difficulty understanding language or using language to the extent that it interferes with learning in school.
Department of Rehabilitation: A state agency that purchases services, through the Vocational Rehabilitation and Habilitation Services programs, which address work-related aspects of a person’s development.
Designated Instruction and Services (DIS): (Also known as related services) Specialized instruction and/or support services identified through an assessment and written on an IEP as necessary for a child to benefit from special education (e.g., speech/language therapy, low vision services, vocational specialist, etc.) These are needed to implement goals of the IEP.
Developmental Delay (DD): A term used to describe the development of students who are not able to perform skills other students of the same age are usually able to perform.
Disability: Technically, refers to the reduced function or loss of a particular body part or organ. In practice, disability is often used to describe mental or physical impairment that restricts one’s ability to function.
Down Syndrome: A chromosomal anomaly that often causes moderate to severe mental retardation along with certain physical characteristics such as large tongue, heart problems, poor muscle tone, and a broad flat bridge of the nose.
Due Process: Set of legal steps and proceedings carried out according to established rules and principles; designed to protect an individual’s constitutional and legal rights.
Dyslexia: An impairment in reading ability or partial ability to read; often associated with cerebral dysfunction or minimal brain dysfunction. An individual with this condition does not understand clearly what he/she reads. A more generic term for learning problems including dyslexia is learning disability.
Emotional Disturbance (ED): One or more of a set of characteristics which adversely affect educational performance; characteristics include an inability to learn which cannot be otherwise explained; an inability to build or maintain interpersonal relationships; inappropriate behaviors or feelings; depression; or school phobia.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): A condition sometimes found in the infants of alcoholic mothers; can involve low birth weight, developmental delay, cardiac, and/or limb, and other physical defects.
Habilitation: The process through which individuals are assisted in acquiring and maintaining skills which enable them to cope more effectively with their personal needs and circumstances of their environments, and to strive to reach their full physical, mental, and social potential.
Hearing Impaired: Describes anyone who has a hearing loss significant enough to require special education training, and /or adaptations; includes both deaf and hard of hearing conditions.
Inclusion: Full inclusion refers to the inclusion of a student with special needs in an age appropriate regular classroom at the student’s neighborhood school. The student moves with peers to subsequent grades. All related services are provided in the regular classroom through a collaborative approach, except where privacy is an issue. Curriculum may be district core curriculum as for the other students or modified core curriculum to provide physical assistance, adapted content and /or material, multi-level curriculum, curriculum overlapping (same activity, same goals) or substitute curriculum.
Individualized Educational Program (IEP): A written educational prescription developed by a school for each child with a disability. An IEP must contain:
· the child’s present levels of educational performance
· annual and short-term educational goals
· the specific education program and related services that will be provided to the child
· the extent to which the child will participate in regular education program with non-disabled children
Individualized Family Services Plan (IFSP): A requirement of PL 99-457, Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986, for the coordination of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Similar to the IEP in that is required for all school-age children with disabilities.
Individualized Program Plan (IPP): An annually reviewed record of program and service needs provided by Regional Centers (e.g., respite care, behavior management training, etc.).
Individualized Transition Plan (ITP): An articulated, interagency educational plan designed to facilitate a student’s move from school to employment and a quality adult life. The IEP/ITP addresses critical aspects of a student’s transition, including employment goals, residential placement, guardianship, transportation, independent living, and income support. An ITP must be done in conjunction with an IEP.
Integration: Integration refers to the inclusion and interaction of students with special needs in an age appropriate regular education program and/or classroom from which they are able to derive educational benefit in a variety of areas including social skills and interactions, communication and language skills, classroom skills, independent living/vocational skills, and academic skills. Integration is an on-going process related to the individual needs of students.
Learning Disability (LD): A lack of achievement compared to ability in a specific learning area(s) within the range of achievement of individuals with comparable mental ability. Most definitions emphasize a basic disorder in psychological processes involved in understanding and using spoken or written language. (See Specific Learning Disability)
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE): A concept expressed by the courts in the 1970’s, mandating that each person with a disability should be educated or served in the most "normal" setting and atmosphere. This led to the concept and practice of mainstreaming.
Legally Blind: Visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye after the best possible correction with glasses or contact lenses, or vision restricted to a field of 20 degrees or less. Acuity of 20/200 means the eye can see clearly at 20 feet what the normal eye can see at 200.
Mainstreaming: A term referring to the predefined period of time during which a special education student participates in general education activities, either academic or non academic (e.g., math, reading, lunch, recess, and art).
Mental Illness: A condition that results in deviant thinking, feeling and behavior to a degree that causes difficulty in adjusting to life.
Mental Retardation: A broadly used term that refers to significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning manifested during the development period and existing concurrently with impairment in adaptive behavior. At present, definitions indicate a person having an IQ of 70 or less and showing impairment in adaptation or social ability.
Occupational Therapist: A professional who programs and/or delivers instructional activities and materials to help children and adults with disabilities learn to participate in daily activities.
On-the-Job Training: A method of teaching students with disabilities specific work skills by assigning them to employment on competitive jobs for part of a day or sometimes a full day.
Orthopedic Impairment: Any disability caused by disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
Physical Therapist: A professional trained to help people with disabilities develop and maintain muscular and orthopedic capability.
Program Specialist: A Program Specialist is a specialist who holds a valid special education credential, health services credential, or a school psychologist authorization, and who has advanced training and related experience in the education of individuals with exceptional needs and a specialized, in-depth knowledge of special education services.
Regional Occupational Center/Program (ROC/P): The concept of ROC/Ps originated with Senate Bill 1379 and was enacted into law by the California Legislature in 1963. These centers and programs are intended to provide vocational and occupational instruction related to the attainment of skills for the upgrading of existing skills so that trainees are prepared for gainful employment.
Rehabilitation: A social service program designed to teach a newly disabled person basic skills needed for independence.
Rehabilitation Department: Department of Rehabilitation is a state agency that purchases services through the Vocational Rehabilitation and Habilitation Service programs, which address work-related aspects of a person’s development.
Resource Specialist Program (RSP): Students receiving special education instruction for less than 50% of the school day are enrolled in RSP. These students may be "pulled out" of the general classroom for special assistance during specific periods of the day or week and are taught by credentialed special education Resource Specialists.
Section 504: Under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, this section prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities in employment and other fields. A set of regulations (Federal Register, May 4, 1977) was established in an effort to assure their civil rights.
Special Day Class (SDC): A self-contained classroom in which only students who require special education instruction for more than 50% of the school day are enrolled.
Special Education: The individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of physical settings, special equipment and materials, teaching procedures, and other interventions designed to help learners with special needs achieve the greatest possible personal self-sufficiency and success in school and community.
Special Education Local Plan Area (SELPA): The service area covered by the local plan developed under subdivision (a) (b) or (c) of Section 56170 of the Education Code. It may be comprised of one or more school districts or county offices which may choose to join together in planning and delivering special education services for children within their boundaries.
Special Education Parents Advisory Committee (SEPAC): A committee of parents and guardians, including parents and guardians of individuals with exceptional needs, and representatives from schools and community agencies established to advise the SELPA regarding the development and review of programs under the local comprehensive plan.
Specific Learning Disability (SLD): A disability which involves a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and academic achievement due to a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes and is not primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor disabilities, mental retardation, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
Student Study Team (SST): A general education process designed to make preliminary modifications within the general education program of a student not succeeding in class (sometimes referred to as a "Child Study Team" or "Student Success Team").
Transition: Transition is a purposeful, organized, and outcome-oriented process designed to help "at risk" students move from school to employment and a quality adult life. Expected student outcomes include meaningful employment, a further education, and/or participation in the community.
Traumatic Brain Injury: Term used in professional practice; applies only to person with acquired brain injuries caused by an external physical force. Does not apply to injuries caused by internal occurrences such as infections, tumors, fever, exposure to toxic substances, or near drowning. Educational performance may meet the criteria of one of the other disability categories, such as "other health impaired", "specific learning disabilities", or "multiple disabilities".
WorkAbility: Program which promotes independent living and provides comprehensive pre-employment worksite training, empl, , oyment and follow-up services for youth in special education who are making the transition from school to work, post-secondary education, or training.